Source Testing

Emissions/Source Testing Capabilities

Click here for EPA Test Methods

Monitoring Solutions offers complete Source Testing with mobile labs fully equipped with CEMS and isokinetic sample trains.  With full engineering, technical and compliance expertise we offer:

  • Compliance Testing
  • Stack Performance Testing
  • CEMS Certification & RATA 
  • RICE – Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines
  • Guarantee Testing
  • Process Testing
  • Engineering Studies and more 

Air Quality Services

Monitoring Solutions offers a full range of emissions testing services using wet method testing techniques, Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR).  Our procedures follow EPA test methods listed in 40 CFR Parts 51, 60, 63 and 75 and methods published by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), National Council for Air and Stream Improvement (NCASI), and the California Air Resource Board (CARB).

Emissions Testing is generally performed for compliance or engineering (performance or design) purposes, as described below:

Performance Engineering Testing

Engineering test data and results are used to improve the performance of a process or operating equipment or emission control devices.  Often, deviations to published EPA, ASME, NCASI and/or CARB methods/procedures are proposed to either meet the desired objective or to make the test unacceptable to regulatory agencies.  Monitoring Solutions also performs tests to verify sources are operating within compliance limits, or, to determine if a facility has room in their umbrella permit to increase production or add another process (emission source).

Monitoring Solutions has provided cost-saving solutions to performance problems and emissions reductions by performing the following projects:

  • Our performance engineering services have greatly reduced fuel usage while maximizing output and reducing emissions generated during combustion.  ASME Methodology is often used for balancing fossil fuel boilers and measuring fuel flow.
  • Diagnostic testing of thermal oxidizers was performed to determine the temperature required to maintain the required destruction efficiency.  Lowering the temperature reduced fuel consumption, which results in cost savings.
  • Emissions versus production rate curves are generated to allow clients to determine the optimum rate at which to operate their plant. Curves from engineering tests have also been used to assist facilities in preparing annual emissions reports by not over-reporting emissions generating while operating at less than full load.
  • Tasks typically performed for an engineering test are:
  • Attend pre-test meetings to understand objective of test and operating process
  • Discuss procedures/methods best suited to meet objectives
  • Complete Stack Test Plan
  • Perform Emissions Testing
  • Preparation of Emissions Test Report

Compliance Testing

Compliance testing is driven by operating permits or regulatory requirements.  Procedures listed in EPA Methods are strictly followed. Alternative methods are used with approval of the appropriate regulatory agency. Tasks performed for a compliance test are:

  • Define scope of work - as required by operating permit, or, evaluate most appropriate procedures/methods
  • Submit stack test plan/protocols to regulatory agency
  • Emissions testing following methods/procedures stated in Test Protocol and approved by regulatory agency
  • Preparation of test reports according to regulatory authority specifications
Compliance testing includes initial certification and annual audits of facility Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS). CEM certifications/audits performed by Monitoring Solutions include:
  • 7-day Zero, low level and high level calibration drift tests

  • Initial Certification Testing

  • Relative Accuracy Test Audits (RATAs) for Flow rate, O2, CO2, SO2, NOx, CO, H2S, TRS and VOC's

Monitoring Solutions CEMS data is continuously recorded in real time and monitored by on-site personnel to allow preliminary calculations and show trends (FTIR data is near real time).  Preliminary concentrations/emissions are calculated after each run. Our personnel communicate immediately with client personnel if monitored concentrations do not appear to be normal or if preliminary concentrations indicate allowable limits may be exceeded.  This is particularly useful when evaluating equipment performance for engineering testing, performing preliminary Part 60 and Part 75 RATA calculations (prevent having to repeat testing), and comparing emissions to compliance limits.

Industries Served

Industries served by Monitoring Solutions and processes tested include:

  • Petroleum and Ethanol Refineries
  • Coal Fired Utilities
  • Portland Cement and Lime Kilns
  • Biological Waste Incineration
  • Municipal Waste Incineration
  • Gas, Oil and Coal Fired Boilers
  • Grain Processing
  • Trona, Coal, Vermiculite and Gold Mining (processes)
  • Pulp and Paper
  • Acid and Fertilizer Pants
  • Asphalt Plants
  • Pollution Control Applications (Scrubbers, Baghouses, ESP's, etc.)
  • Natural Gas Turbines
  • Internal Combustion Engines

EPA Test Methodology

Test Method


Sampling Technique


Method 1

Gas Velocity

Pitot Tube


Method 2 Gas Velocity S-Type Pitot N/A

Method 3

Gas Molecular Weight

Integrated Tedlar Bag


Method 3A

Oxygen/Carbon Dioxide

Constant Rate Extractive Sampling

Paramagnetic / Non-Dispersive Infrared (NDIR) Absorption

Method 4

Gas Moisture Content

Impinger Train


Method 5

Total Particulate

Isokinetic Sampling


Method 5F Nonsulfate Particulate Matter Isokinetic Sampling

Ion Chromatography,

Weight, Gravimetric

Method 6

Sulfur Dioxide

Extractive Sampling-Absorption of SO2 into H2O2

Barium-Thorin Titration

Method 6C

Sulfur Dioxide

Constant Rate Extractive Sampling

Ultraviolet (UV) Absorption

Method 7E

Nitrogen Oxides

Extractive Sampling


Method 8

Sulfuric Acid Mist

Sulfur Trioxide/Dioxide

Isokinetic Sampling-Absorption into IPA/H2O2

Barium-Thorin Titration

Method 9

Visible Emissions

Certified VE Reader

Plume Opacity

Method 10

Carbon Monoxide

Constant Rate Extractive Sampling

Non-Dispersive Infrared (NDIR)

Method 11

Hydrogen Sulfide

Extractive Sampling-Absorp. in Cadmium Sulfate

Iodometric Measurement

 Method 12


Isokinetic Sampling-Absorption into Nitric Acid

Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS)

Method 13B


Isokinetic Sampling-Absorption of F into Water

Specific Ion Electrode

Method 15

Hydrogen Sulfide

Carbonyl Sulfide

Carbon Disulfide

Constant Rate Sampling-Dilution of Sample with Air

Gas Chromatography/ Flame Photometric Detection (GC/FPD)

Method 16

Total Reduced Sulfur Compounds

Constant Rate Extractive Sampling


Method 16B

Total Reduced Sulfur Compounds

Constant Rate Sampling-Oxidation of TRS to SO2; Absorption of SO2 into H2O2

Barium-Thorin Titration

Method 16C Total Reduced Sulfur (TRS) Constant Rate Extractive w/SO2 removal (Citrate Buffer), Thermal Oxidation and instrument analysis TRS thermal oxidation Ultraviolet (UV) Absorption

Method 17

Total Particulate

Isokinetic In-Stack Sampling


Method 18 VOC (organic compounds) Constant Rate Extractive Sampling, or Integrated Bags/Cannisters Gas Chromatography (individual quantification with mass spec., photo., flame, electron or other detection)
Method 19 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Removal and Particulate, SO2 and NOx Emission Rates Fuel analysis, diluent (O2/CO2) analysis, combustion gas volumes/heat input Formula Calculations

Method 23


Isokinetic Sampling-Absorption onto XAD Resin

High-Resolution Gas Chromatography/Mass Spec (HR GC/MS)

Method 25A Total Hydrocarbons Constant Rate Extractive Sampling Continuous Flame Ionization Analyzer (FIA)
Method 26 Hydrogen Chloride/Chlorine Extractive Sampling-Absorption of HCl in H2SO4, Absorption of CL2 in NaOH Ion Chromatography (IC)
Method 26A Hydrogen Chloride/Chlorine Isokinetic Sampling- HCl Absorption in H2SO4, CL2Absorption in NaOH IC
Method 29 Multi -Metals Isokinetic Sampling-Absorption in Acidic Absorbing solutions Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma (ICAP) Spectroscopy; Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spec. (GFAAS); Cold Vapor Absorption Spectroscopy (CVAAS)
Method 30B Vapor Phase Mercury In-Stack Paired Sorbent Trap Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption (CVAA)
Method 101A Mercury Isokinetic - Absorption in Potassium Permanganate CVAA
Method 201A PM2.5 PM10 Isokinetic Sampling-In-Stack Cyclone / Glass Fiber Filter Gravimetric
Method 202 Condensible Particulate Matter Extraction of Impinger Contents Gravimetric
Method 320 Organic and inorganic compounds Extractive Sampling Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)
Method 321 Hydrogen Chloride Extractive Sampling FTIR
Method 323 Formaldehyde Constant Rate Extractive Sampling with Midget Impingers Colorimetric
Method 0011
of SW-846
Aldehydes and Ketones Isokinetic Sampling-Absorption into DNPH High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
Method 0030
of SW-846
VOC's Extractive Sampling-Absorption of Organics onto Tenax/Charcoal Tubes Low-Resolution Gas Chromatography/Mass spectrometry (LR GC/MS)
Standard Methods CTM-027 or 417E Ammonia Extractive Sampling-Absorption of NH3 in H2SO4 Specific Ion Electrode


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